The database behind your project

Claudio
Claudio Zizza

Developer for > 18 years
(Currently PHP)

Organizing PHP Usergroup Karlsruhe

Part of Doctrine: doctrine-project.org
Part of Podcast: phpdevradio.de
PHP Snippets: php.budgegeria.de

Twitter: @SenseException

Who has a big customer-project without a database?

Microsoft Access 2000

And now for something completely different

S E Q UE L

Structured Query Language

ISO/IEC 9075

  • SQL-86 (or SQL-87)
  • SQL-89
  • SQL-92
  • SQL:1999
  • SQL:2003
  • SQL:2006
  • SQL:2008
  • SQL:2011
  • SQL:2016

    SELECT firstname, name FROM address_book ORDER BY name;
            

Select firstname and name from address book and order them by name

id firstname name
1 John Doe
2 Jane Doe
3 Leo Part

    SELECT firstname, name FROM address_book GROUP BY name;
            

ERROR: column "address_book.firstname" must appear in the GROUP BY clause or be used in an aggregate function

It's a PostgreSQL database.

No!

Yes!

Ooooh...

Know your database!

How did you learn SQL?

A chapter in books


    $db = mysql_connect('127.0.0.1'):

    $result = mysql_db_query('bar', 'SELECT id, name FROM foo', $db);
    $rowCount = mysql_num_rows($result);

    for ($rowPointer = 0; $rowPointer < $rowCount; $rowPointer++) {
        echo mysql_result($result, $rowPointer,'id') . ' contains name ' .
            mysql_result($result, $rowPointer,'name') . PHP_EOL;
    }
            

    $pdo = new PDO('mysql:dbname=bar;host=127.0.0.1');

    $statement = $pdo->query('SELECT id, name FROM foo');
    $result = $statement->fetchAll();

    foreach ($result as $row) {
        echo $row['id'] . ' contains name ' . $row['name'] . PHP_EOL;
    }
            

    $pdo = new PDO('mysql:dbname=bar;host=127.0.0.1');

    $statement = $pdo->query('SELECT id, name FROM foo');

    $result = $statement->fetchAll(PDO::FETCH_CLASS, Foo::CLASS);

    foreach ($result as $foo) {
        echo $foo->getId() . ' contains name ' . $foo->getName() . PHP_EOL;
    }

            

Entity


    use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping as ORM;

    /**
     * @ORM\Entity
     * @ORM\Table(name="foo")
     */
    class Foo
    {
        /**
         * @ORM\Column(type="integer")
         * @ORM\Id
         * @ORM\GeneratedValue(strategy="AUTO")
         */
        private $id;

        /**
         * @ORM\Column(type="string")
         */
        private $value;

        // public function __construct(string $value)
        // public function setValue(string $value) : void
        // ...
    }
            

Insert new entity


    $entity = new Foo('value');

    $entityManager->persist($entity);

    $entityManager->flush();
            

DQL or find()


    SELECT e FROM Foo e WHERE e.id = 42
            

    $foo = $entityManager->find(Foo::class, 42);
            

Congratulations

ORM

+

You have doubled your problems

ORM is awesome, but

before it was:

  • Know how to query
  • OOP boilerplate code

Now it is:

  • Know how queries look like
  • Know when queries happen
  • Know how to query
  • No full SQL power due to DB compatibility

Know when queries happen

Insert new entity


    $entity = new Foo('value');

    $entityManager->persist($entity);

    $entityManager->flush(); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there
            

Update entity (default tracking policy)


    $entity = $entityManager
        ->find(Foo::class, 42); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there

    $entity->setValue('new value');

    $entityManager->flush(); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there
            

What Unit Of Work does


    $entity = $entityManager->find(Foo::class, 42);
    
    // ... sooo much code
    
    $entity = $entityManager->find(Foo::class, 42); // <-- No SQL query runs in there
            

Unit Of Work


    $entityManager->find(Foo::class, 42);
    
    $entityManager->getRepository(Foo::class)
        ->find(42);
    
    $entityManager->createQuery('SELECT e FROM Foo e WHERE e.id = 42')
        ->getSingleResult();
            

Which language?


    $de = new Language('de');
    $en = new Language('en');
    $it = new Language('it');
    $entityManager->persist($de);
    $entityManager->persist($en);
    $entityManager->persist($it);

    $movie = new Movie('The Mutex');
    $movie->setLanguages([$de, $en, $it]);
    $entityManager->persist($movie);
    $entityManager->flush();

    $movie = $entityManager->createQuery(
            "SELECT m, l FROM Movie m
            JOIN m.languages l
            WHERE l.iso6391 = 'it' AND f.name = 'The Mutex'"
        )
        ->getResult();

    $movie[0]->getLanguages();
            

All languages

  • de
  • en
  • it

Clear EntityManager/Unit Of Work


    $entityManager->persist($movie);
    $entityManager->flush();

    $entityManager->clear(); // <-- Clear enities from the EntityManager/Unit Of Work

    $movie = $entityManager->createQuery(
            "SELECT m, l FROM Movie m
            JOIN m.languages l
            WHERE l.iso6391 = 'it' AND f.name = 'The Mutex'"
        )
        ->getResult();

    $movie[0]->getLanguages();
            

Clear EntityManager/Unit Of Work


    $entityManager->clear();
    $entityManager->clear(Entity::class);
            

The Entity Reloaded


    $entityManager->reload($entity);
            

Lazy Loading


    class Foo
    {
        // ... properties and metadata

        /**
         * @var Bar[]
         *
         * @ORM\OneToMany(targetEntity="Bar", mappedBy="foo", fetch="LAZY")
         */
        private $bars;
    }
            

Lazy Loading


  $foos = $entityManager->getRepository(Foo::class)
      ->findAll(); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there

  foreach ($foos as $foo) {
      foreach ($foo->getBars() as $bar) { // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there
          // do stuff
      }
  }
            

Lazy Loading - SQL


    -- findAll() returns 3 Foo entities
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2 FROM foo t0
    -- Each query is one iteration for getting the Bar relations
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 1
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 2
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 3
            

Eager Loading


    class Foo
    {
        // ... properties and metadata

        /**
         * @var Bar[]
         *
         * @ORM\OneToMany(targetEntity="Bar", mappedBy="foo", fetch="EAGER")
         */
        private $bars;
    }
            

Eager Loading


    $foos = $entityManager->getRepository(Foo::class)
        ->findAll(); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there

    foreach ($foos as $foo) {
        foreach ($foo->getBars() as $bar) {
            // do stuff
        }
    }
            

EAGER Loading - SQL


    -- findAll() returns 3 Foo entities and joins the bar relation
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t3.id AS id_4, t3.name AS name_5, t3.foo_id AS foo_id_6
        FROM foo t0
        LEFT JOIN bar t3 ON t3.foo_id = t0.id
            

Extra Lazy Loading


    // fetch="EXTRA_LAZY"
    $foos = $entityManager->getRepository(Foo::class)
        ->findAll(); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there

    foreach ($foos as $foo) {
        count($foo->getBars()); // <-- There's SQL somewhere in there
    }
            

    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2 FROM foo t0
    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 1
    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 2
    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 3
            

Know how queries look like

Doctrine DQL


    SELECT a.firstname, a.name FROM Entity\AddressBook a GROUP BY a.name
            

Same code, different SQL


    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2 FROM foo t0
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 1
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 2
    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t0.foo_id AS foo_id_3 FROM bar t0 WHERE t0.foo_id = 3
            

    SELECT t0.id AS id_1, t0.name AS name_2, t3.id AS id_4, t3.name AS name_5, t3.foo_id AS foo_id_6
        FROM foo t0
        LEFT JOIN bar t3 ON t3.foo_id = t0.id
            

Explicit join - One query


SELECT f, b FROM Entity\Foo f JOIN f.bars b
            

SELECT f0_.id AS id_0, f0_.name AS name_1, b1_.id AS id_2, b1_.name AS name_3, b1_.foo_id AS foo_id_4
    FROM foo f0_
    INNER JOIN bar b1_ ON f0_.id = b1_.foo_id
            

DQL → SQL


    SELECT a FROM Entity\AddressBook a
            

    SELECT a0_.id AS id_0, a0_.firstname AS firstname_1, a0_.name AS name_2
        FROM address_book a0_;
            

Equal code, different SQL


    SELECT f FROM Entity\Foo f
            

    SELECT f0_.id AS id_0, f0_.name AS name_1 FROM foo f0_
        WHERE (f0_.deleted = 0);
            

Filter


use Doctrine\ORM\Mapping\ClassMetadata;
use Doctrine\ORM\Query\Filter\SQLFilter;

class FooFilter extends SQLFilter
{
    public function addFilterConstraint(ClassMetadata $targetEntity, $targetTableAlias)
    {
        if ($targetEntity->getTableName() !== 'foo') {
            return '';
        }

        return $targetTableAlias.'.deleted = 0';
    }
}
            

Why should I care about the SQL parts?


    SELECT q FROM Entity\Qux q WHERE q.city = 'Hahnland'
            

Full table scan

Index scan


    select * from qux WHERE city = 'Hahnland';
            

Before

Next release

You can't ignore indices

Slow SQL queries

  • Need more resources
  • May lock rows / Waiting queries

DQL is not SQL!

DBAL QueryBuilder


    $queryBuilder->where('f.id = 1')
        ->select('f.name', 'f.id', 'b.name as bname', 'q.stuff')
        ->leftJoin('f', 'bar', 'b', 'b.foo_id = f.id')
        ->from('foo', 'f')
        ->orWhere('f.id = 2')
        ->leftJoin('f', 'qux', 'q', 'q.foo_id = f.id'); // join order?

    if ($yolo) {
        $queryBuilder->andWhere('q.moreStuff = true');
    }
            

How expensive is this query builder SQL?

Back to SQL


    SELECT name, department, revenue FROM company;
            

Window Function


    SELECT name, department,
        SUM(revenue) OVER (PARTITION BY department ORDER BY name)
        FROM company;
            
name department SUM
Albert sales 1200
Zoe sales 1200
Angela development 1804

It's that new MySQL 8 feature

It's a SQL 2003 standard

Values List


    VALUES ('value1', 42, 1.8), ('value2', 12, 9);
            

Values List in DB Versions

  • PostgreSQL: Yes - 8.2 (and earlier)
  • MariaDB: Yes - 10.3
  • MySQL: Nope
  • SQL-92

Partially implemented


    INSERT INTO foo VALUES ('value1', 42, 1.8), ('value2', 12, 9);
            

Column name alias


    SELECT * FROM (
        VALUES ('value1', 42), ('value2', 12)
    ) AS t (my_text, my_number);
            
my_text my_number
value1 42
value2 12
Column aliases are not supported by MariaDB

JSON

MySQL/MariaDB


    SELECT JSON_OBJECT('a', name, 'b', number) AS jayson FROM foo;
            

PostgreSQL


    SELECT JSON_BUILD_OBJECT('a', name, 'b', number) AS jayson FROM foo;
            
jayson
{"a": "value1", "b": 42}

Common Table Expression (CTE)


    WITH bar (col1, col2) AS (SELECT id, content FROM foo)

    SELECT * FROM bar;
            

listagg

SQL 2016 (and Oracle)


    SELECT LISTAGG(name, ',') AS comma_separated FROM foo GROUP BY number;
            

PostgreSQL / MSSQL


    SELECT STRING_AGG(name, ',') AS comma_separated FROM foo GROUP BY number;
            

MariaDB / MySQL


    SELECT GROUP_CONCAT(name SEPARATOR ',') AS comma_separated FROM foo GROUP BY number;
            
comma_separated
Sebastian,Andreas

You may not have the full power of SQL at your fingertips

This was just the tip of the iceberg

unsplash-logo Annie Spratt

Know your database!

SQL queries need reviews like any other code

Dev Toolbar

Dev Toolbar

SQL fiddles

SQL books

Doctrine 2 ORM Best Practices

by Marco Pivetta (@Ocramius)

Thank you

What are your questions?

Claudio Zizza
@SenseException